Reducing a sentence resulting from a criminal conviction, which can be done by the governor of a state (state convictions) or the president of the United States (federal convictions). A commutation is distinguished from a pardon, which wipes out the conviction and can even stop the actual or potential charge (as when President Gerald R. Ford pardoned ex-President Richard M. Nixon even without charges having been officially made—a rare instance of the use of the presidential pardon power). Commutation implies the penalty was excessive or there is evidence of rehabilitation, reform, community service, or other indications of good conduct.Category: Criminal LawCategory: Small Claims Court & Lawsuits
Nolo’s Plain-English Law Dictionary. Gerald N. Hill, Kathleen Thompson Hill. 2009.
In the context of pensions, the process of giving up a pension in exchange for a lump sum of equal value. The term is also used to describe the conversion of rental payments under leases into a fixed amount.
Practical Law Dictionary. Glossary of UK, US and international legal terms. www.practicallaw.com. 2010.
Modification, exchange, or substitution.
Dictionary from West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005.
Modification, exchange, or substitution.II The reduction of a sentence, as from death to life imprisonment.
Short Dictionary of (mostly American) Legal Terms and Abbreviations.
n.the act of reducing a criminal sentence resulting from a criminal conviction by the executive clemency of the Governor of the state, or President of the United States in the case of federal crimes. This is not the same as a pardon, which wipes out the conviction or the actual or potential charge (as when President Gerald R. Ford pardoned ex-President Richard M. Nixon even without charges having been officially made-a rare instance). A pardon implies either that the conviction was wrong, that there has been complete rehabilitation of the party, or that he/she has lived an exemplary life for many years and deserves to have his/her name cleared in old age. Commutation implies the penalty was excessive or there has been rehabilitation, reform or other circumstances such as good conduct or community service. Commutation is sometimes used when there is evidence that the defendant was not guilty, but it would prove embarrassing to admit an outright error by the courts.
Law dictionary. EdwART. 2013.
Look at other dictionaries:
commutation — [ kɔmytasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • déb. XIIe; lat. commutatio « changement » 1 ♦ Didact. Substitution, remplacement. Commutation et permutation. Spécialt Substitution d un élément par un autre, dégageant des distinctions pertinentes (notamment en… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Commutation — Com mu*ta tion, n. [L. commutatio: cf. F. commutation.] 1. A passing from one state to another; change; alteration; mutation. [R.] [1913 Webster] So great is the commutation that the soul then hated only that which now only it loves. South. [1913 … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
commutation — com‧mu‧ta‧tion [ˌkɒmjˈteɪʆn ǁ ˌkɑː ] noun [countable] INSURANCE a single large payment instead of a series of future payments: • The assets of the insurer will be used to make a single, final payment, called a commutation, to policyholders. * * … Financial and business terms
commutation — COMMUTATION. s. f. Changement. Il n est en usage que dans cette phrase, qui se dit en matière criminelle, Commutation de peine … Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798
commutation — mid 15c., from O.Fr. commutacion change, transformation, exchange, barter (13c., Mod.Fr. commutation), from L. commutationem (nom. commutatio) a change, alteration, noun of action from commutare to change, alter entirely (see COMMUTE (Cf.… … Etymology dictionary
commutation — Commutation. substant. fem. Changement. Il n est en usage qu en cette phrase. Commutation de peine … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
commutation — [käm΄yə tā′shən] n. [ME & OFr commutacion < L commutatio, a changing < commutatus, pp. of commutare,COMMUTE] 1. an exchange; substitution 2. a) the substitution of one kind of payment for another b) the payment made ☆ 3. the act of… … English World dictionary
Commutation — (v. lat. Commutatio), 1) Veränderung, Vertauschung; 2) (Rhet.), so v. w. Antimetabole; 3) (Commutationswinkel, Astr.), der Winkel, welchen die Linie von der Erde aus zur Sonne mit einer andern von der Sonne zu einem Planeten macht; er ist immer… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
commutation — et changement, Commutatio … Thresor de la langue françoyse
commutation — ► NOUN 1) the commuting of a judicial sentence. 2) the commutating of an electric current … English terms dictionary